The technology of the Vanadium Redox Flow battery (VRFB) combines the performance advantages of flow batteries with the simplicity of using just one natural element – vanadium.
Unlike prominent solid state batteries, such as lead-acid and lithium-ion, flow batteries use a liquid electrolyte to store energy. This allows for near unlimited recharging (or cycling), easy scaling by just adding more electrolyte and negligible performance deterioration over long periods of time. As a result, for daily energy storage of a few hours, flow batteries provide the most cost-effective means to store energy. The advantage of vanadium in particular, lies in its ability to exist in four different oxidation states and its water-solubility, allowing for a simpler battery with fewer inputs and no toxic elements.